Amber: The History and Significance of a Fossilized Gemstone in Jewelry and Art

Amber has captivated people with its color and natural beauty since the Neolithic times. As a fossilized tree resin, this organic gemstone has an intriguing history that dates back tens of millions of years. In addition to its alluring appearance, amber has been utilized in various applications ranging from decorative objects and jewelry to traditional folk medicine.

Found throughout the world, some of the most significant amber deposits are located along the shores of the Baltic Sea, in sands estimated to be about 40 million to 60 million years old. Amber exhibits a range of colors, from the most common yellow and orange hues to rarer shades such as white, reddish-brown, and even bluish or greenish tones. This diverse palette contributes to the unique and captivating allure of this ancient gemstone.

While amber’s beauty remains timeless, its value can vary depending on factors such as geographical origin and the presence of inclusions. For instance, Baltic amber is typically more expensive than Dominican amber. Additionally, pieces containing insect or plant inclusions can fetch higher prices than clean, inclusion-free specimens. This diversity and natural history make amber a fascinating subject for collectors and enthusiasts alike.

Amber Formation

Tree Resin

Amber is an organic gemstone formed from the hardened resin of ancient pine trees. In living trees, resin serves as a defense mechanism, sealing gaps or breaks in the bark caused by insects or other damage.

The resin produced by tree bark and sometimes in the heartwood serves as a protective seal. Over time, this resin becomes the beautiful and valuable material known as amber, sought after for its unique appearance and properties.

Fossilization Process

The hardening process of amber, called polymerization, involves the fossilization of tree resin over many centuries, transforming it into a sturdy and hard gemstone. Amber exhibits a variety of colors, predominantly shades of yellow, but also includes nuances of orange, brown, and rarely red. Some varieties of amber are opaque and milky-white, referred to as bone amber. The turbidity in some pieces of amber is caused by the inclusion of numerous minute air bubbles, adding to its unique appearance. Amber is known to contain hundreds of species of fossilized insects and plant material as inclusions, making it not only visually appealing but also scientifically significant.

Types of Amber

Amber is a fascinating gemstone formed from the fossilized resin of ancient trees. There are various types of amber found around the world, each with its unique characteristics and appearance. In this section, we will discuss three popular types of amber: Baltic Amber, Caribbean Amber, and Dominican Amber.

Baltic Amber

Baltic Amber, the most common amber variety, is found along the shores of a large part of the Baltic Sea. This type of amber originated from the Eocene age, making it around 35 to 55 million years old. Baltic Amber is known for its wide range of colors, from the classic honey-yellow to more rare hues like green and blue. This variety sometimes contains inclusions of plants, insects, and other small creatures, which makes it exceptionally valuable to collectors and scientists.

Caribbean Amber

Caribbean Amber is primarily found in Colombia, Venezuela, and the Dominican Republic. This amber variety is younger than Baltic Amber, with an estimated age of around 25 million years. Caribbean Amber has a warm, rich appearance that comes in various shades of golden yellow, orange, and reddish brown. It is also well-known for its striking blue and green fluorescence when exposed to ultraviolet light. Caribbean Amber often has inclusions, giving it a unique aesthetic that is highly valued by collectors.

Dominican Amber

Dominican Amber, a subtype of Caribbean Amber, is found specifically in the Dominican Republic. This variety of amber is highly regarded for its clarity and range of colors, which includes shades such as honey, yellow, orange, red, and even rare blue and green hues. Dominican Amber is around 15-45 million years old and often features intricate inclusions of insects, plants, and other organic material. It is considered one of the most transparent and high-quality ambers worldwide, making it a favorite among collectors and jewelry enthusiasts.

Amber Color Variations

Amber is a unique and fascinating gemstone that showcases various colors. In this section, we will explore some of the more common amber color variations, giving an insight into what makes each one special.

Yellow Amber

Yellow amber is perhaps the most common and recognizable color of amber. It has a warm, golden hue ranging from a light, almost transparent shade to a rich, deep yellow. This color of amber is often associated with energy and inspiration, reflecting the sun’s rays in a beautiful way.

Green Amber

Green amber is a rarer form of amber with an alluring greenish tint. This unique color comes from the inclusion of plant material within the amber, giving it a distinct and captivating hue. Green amber is typically found in smaller quantities or mixed with other shades of amber, making it highly desirable among collectors.

Blue Amber

Blue amber is a scarce and striking form of amber. This stunning color variation is most commonly found in the Dominican Republic and can be quite valuable due to its scarcity. The blue tint in the amber is a result of fluorescence, causing the gemstone to emit a mesmerizing blue glow when exposed to sunlight or ultraviolet light. This extraordinary feature sets blue amber apart from other amber colors.

Red Amber

Red amber, also known as cherry or cognac amber, is a vibrant and bold variation of amber. This eye-catching color is created through a natural process of oxidation, which alters the original yellow tint of the resin. With its rich red and orange hues, red amber symbolizes boldness and happiness and is highly sought after by collectors and jewelry enthusiasts alike.

Amber Inclusions

Amber, a fossilized tree resin, has captivated people for centuries due to its unique beauty and the fascinating inclusions it can contain. These inclusions are often remnants of plants or animals that were trapped within the resin millions of years ago. In this section, we will examine the different types of inclusions found in amber: Plant Material, Insects, and Arachnids.

Plant Material

Plant material is frequently found within amber, giving us a glimpse into ancient ecosystems that existed millions of years ago. These inclusions can include:

  • Leaves: Often preserved in exquisite detail, leaves can help identify the types of plants that existed in the area where the amber was formed.
  • Seeds and pollen: These microscopic inclusions provide valuable information to paleobotanists about the reproduction and dispersal mechanisms of ancient plants.
  • Wood fragments: These can range from small twigs to larger branches, sometimes even including bark or fungal growths.


Insects are among the most common and sought-after inclusions in amber. Some examples of insects that can be found preserved in amber are:

  • Flies: Often in remarkably preserved condition, flies offer a wealth of information on the ecology and behavior of ancient insects.
  • Beetles: From tiny weevils to larger, more elaborate species, beetles make up a significant portion of insect inclusions in amber.
  • Ants and bees: These social insects can sometimes be found alongside other colony members, giving scientists a unique peek into the organization and structure of ancient insect societies.


Although less common than insects, arachnids are still found within amber, providing valuable information on the evolution and behavior of these creatures. Some examples of arachnids found in amber include:

  • Spiders: Many species of spiders have been discovered preserved in amber, from small orb-weavers to more sizable hunting spiders.
  • Scorpions: These ancient predators can sometimes be found in amber, exhibiting their formidable stingers and pincers.
  • Mites and ticks: While often overlooked due to their small size, these tiny arachnids provide a wealth of knowledge about the parasites and decomposers in ancient ecosystems.

Amber Uses and Significance

Historical Importance

Amber has been admired and utilized for centuries due to its naturally occurring beauty and significance. It is believed to be formed from tree resin around 320 million years ago and often exhibits tiny insects trapped inside. Historically, amber was considered a precious material by many ancient civilizations, including the Greeks and Romans.

In ancient times, amber was highly associated with the sun, and its bright color was thought to symbolize sunshine. The Greek historian Nicias, for example, believed amber was congealed droplets of sweat formed on the Earth as the sun set beneath the waves. Moreover, amber has played an essential role in various cultures’ myths, beliefs, and rituals.

Healing Properties

Amber is known for its potential healing properties and has been used for numerous therapeutic purposes.

Some of the key benefits are:

  • Pain relief: Amber has been employed as a pain reliever for centuries. When warmed, the oil penetrates the skin and helps to block pain signals from reaching the brain.
  • Antiseptic and disinfectant properties: Amber is said to possess properties that can help heal wounds quickly by reducing inflammation and preventing infections.
  • Eliminating negative energies: People often use amber to rid themselves of fears, acquire patience and wisdom, and soothe bodily aches.
  • Reactivating chakras: Amber is particularly useful for cleansing and reactivating the Sacral and Solar Plexus Chakras, which are associated with personal power, creativity, and emotional balance.

Amber in Jewelry

The amber gemstone is a popular and radiant accessory that often finds its way into collections and jewelry pieces. Its warm glow brings joy to many, and its striking appearance makes it stand out as an eye-catching adornment.

Amber can be found in various forms, such as necklaces, bracelets, earrings, and rings. Aside from its aesthetic appeal, wearing amber jewelry allows the wearer to benefit from its healing and metaphysical properties. The sense of warmth and beauty it imparts has made amber a timeless choice in the world of jewelry.

Frequently Asked Questions

How is amber formed?

Amber is formed through a natural process that takes place over millions of years. It begins when tree resin is excreted and becomes hardened. Over time, the hardened resin gets buried beneath sediment layers, and through heat and pressure, it transforms into a fossilized substance known as amber.

Which color of amber is most valuable?

Amber comes in a variety of colors, ranging from yellow and orange to green, blue, and even black. The most valuable and sought-after color is generally the deep orange or red shade, also known as “cherry amber.” However, this can vary based on personal preferences and the rarity of certain colors.

What are the benefits of amber?

Amber has been valued and used for centuries for its beauty, unique inclusions, and various properties. People have often believed that amber contains healing and protective qualities, while its inclusions offer a fascinating glimpse into prehistoric ecosystems. Additionally, amber has been widely used in jewelry and ornamental art.

What is amber made of?

Amber is a fossilized tree resin, primarily composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Trace amounts of other elements may also be present, depending on the source of the resin and various factors during its formation process.

How can you tell real amber?

Distinguishing real amber from imitations can sometimes be challenging. Genuine amber is warm to the touch, lightweight, and often contains inclusions like insects or plant debris. Some simple tests include the float test (authentic amber floats in saltwater) and the static electricity test (amber attracts small pieces of paper when rubbed against cloth). However, for accurate verification, it is best to consult an expert or a gemologist.

What is the age of typical amber specimens?

Amber specimens can vary greatly in age, depending on their origin and formation conditions. Most amber is found to be between 15 to 300 million years old, with Baltic amber being some of the oldest, dating back to approximately 45 million years ago.

What is the difference between amber and tree sap?

Tree sap is a liquid substance produced by living trees, playing a vital role in its growth, while amber is the fossilized resin from ancient trees. When tree resin is first excreted, it is sticky and fluid, similar to sap. However, over millions of years, this resin undergoes a transformation into a solid, fossilized state – forming amber.